How Solar Panel Works?

how solar panel works

How Solar Panel Works

Lots of Propels use solar energy system but some peoples know how to works solar system.So in this guide we explain you how solar panel works.In principle, a grid-connected photo voltaic solar system works quite simply: while light falls on the solar cells, they generate direct current from them. The individual solar cells are interconnected with larger solar modules. The individual solar modules are in turn connected to the solar generator. The DC current convert into the AC current mean inverter. Thanks to the conversion, the AC power passes directly into the public or privately used grid and thus either the own electricity costs are reduced.

So How solar panel works The picture on the left shows you the simplified operation of a classic solar system in the house.

How does the single solar cell of a photo voltaic solar system work?

Almost 95 percent of all solar cells are made of quartz sand silicon (Si). Silicon (Si) is one of the most common natural elements present in the earth's layer. Silicon is considered inexhaustible. In order to form a silicon wafer from the quartz sand - the natural source of silicon - the quartz sand must first be cleaned and crystallized. The finished product is then sawed into slices, deliberately contaminated and provided with conductor tracks. These are needed for power transport.

If light falls on the silicon layer, electrons are released. In order to use these electrons, the top and bottom of each individual cell must be specifically contaminated with different foreign atoms then solar panel works.

Boron (Br) and phosphorus (P) are often used here. Thanks to the targeted contamination of the cell, the electrons (negative charge carriers) accumulate on one side and the protons (positive charge carriers) on the other side. In this way, a plus and a negative pole, which is comparable to a battery. If a consumption device is subsequently connected, the current flows.

The small cells are so functional that they can generate electricity even at low light levels, such as those encountered in bad weather or cloudy skies. Regardless of the incidence of light or sunlight, however, the voltage of the solar cell behaves. The voltage of a silicon cell is continuously at 0.6 volts. However, depending on the size of the cell is the current. A common solar cell with a dimension of 15 x 15 centimeters produces on average about 5.5 amperes of electricity. At full light, a single cell has an output of approximately 3.4 watts. Various solar cell techniques of a photo voltaic solar system

There are generally three different cell types. The types of crystals include:

  • Mono crystalline cells
  • Poly crystalline cells
  • Amorphous cells
  • The mono crystalline solar cell

Mono crystalline silicon cells are manufactured from a high-purity semiconductor material. Single-crystal rods are pulled out of the silicon melt and then saw into 0.25-millimeter thin slices. This special manufacturing process guarantees high efficiency. The efficiency of the mono crystalline solar cell reaches between 14 and 16 percent.

Villages Solar System

The poly crystalline solar cell

The poly crystalline cells are somewhat less expensive to manufacture. Liquid silicon is first poured into blocks to produce poly crystalline solar cells. On solidification, a typical ice flower structure is characterized by a large number of individual crystals. This crystal structure is formed differently. Defects occur at the outer limits. Due to these crystal defects, the efficiency of a poly crystalline solar cell is only 13 to 15 percent.

The monocrystalline solar cell is thus more effective than the polycrystalline solar cell.

The amorphous solar cells / thin-film cells

Amorphous solar cells are also referred to as thin-film cells. In manufacture, the photo active semiconductors are applied as a thin layer to a glass sheet. When connected directly to modules, the amorphous solar cells are hermetically sealed with a second glass plate. The thickness of the layers is less than 1 micron. Due to the lower material costs, the costs of production are also substantially lower.

Thin-film solar modules are a cost-effective option for using solar energy. However, the efficiency of a thin-film cell is only 6 to 8 percent. A slightly higher efficiency of the thin-film cell can be obtained, for example, with new materials. These include cadmium telluride (CdT) and copper indium dissidence (CIS). The efficiency of a thin-film cell can be increased to 8 to 10 percent.

Solar Module of a PhotoVoltaic System 

In order to design the solar module, the individual solar cells are interconnected and weatherproof packed. From above, the solar modules are - as usual - protected with a glass pane. From below, a protective film is pulled over the solar modules. Between the solar cells remain smaller spaces, through which one can look through. The individual solar modules are available in different sizes. From a few watts up to 300 watts of power.

On average, the modules have an output between 130 and 250 watts. All solar modules are manufactured to current standards and are subject to constant control. Highest quality is guaranteed.

A solar module is one of the lightweights with a weight of 10 to 15 kilograms per square meter. The size of the solar module can vary. However, sizes up to 3 square meters are not uncommon.

Meanwhile, solar roof tiles are also available on the market. These are mounted on the roof like ordinary roof tiles.